دانلود رایگان مقاله لاتین کارآفرینان مهاجر از سایت الزویر
عنوان فارسی مقاله:
کارآفرینان مهاجر و شبکه های محلی در مناطق صنعتی
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:
Migrant entrepreneurs and local networks in industrial districts
سال انتشار : 2016
بخشی از مقاله انگلیسی:
2. Motivations and strategies of migrant entrepreneurs: from the structuralist–culturalist dichotomy to a place-based approach
The literature on migrant entrepreneurship has identified a number of motivations driving the choice of an immigrant to become an entrepreneur. These reasons traditionally appear to differ from the classic view of entrepreneurship provided by the economic literature. In the early studies, the most influential positions in explaining the immigrant entrepreneurship phenomenon were gravitating around the cultural and the structuralist approach (Mavratsas, 1997). According to the former theorists, the wide variations in entrepreneurial rates across migrant groups were explained by cultural and religious factors, such as propensity towards hard work, low risk aversion, strong links with the existing ethnic community and in general a greater orientation towards self-employment. The structuralist approach takes an entirely different perspective, arguing that environmental factors of the host locality play a key role in determining the chances of a successful migrant venture. According to this view, migrants’ decisions in the labour market are heavily influenced by the limited occupational mobility available in most host countries, where cultural barriers and discrimination often generate wide salary gaps and limited possibilities to improve the original economic status. Both views share anumber of relevantlimitations: according toChanand Cheung (1985), positions based purely on cultural factors join the risk of being dangerous in that they enhance a categorizing process towards certain migrant groups. Moreover, recent empirical works have reported that the same ethnic groups show different entrepreneurial attitudes in different countries (Oliveira, 2007). The structuralist approach has been questioned by the literature as it does not explain why ethnic minorities with higher degree of discrimination show lower entrepreneurial rates (Zhou, 2004) and why the same differences exist between ethnic groups that are subject to similar barriers in the local labour market. The limits identified by the literature for the two methodologies have fostered the implementation of hybrid approaches to account for both the structural and the cultural aspect: in this context, the interactive model (Waldinger et al., 1990) and the mixed-embeddedness model (Kloosterman et al., 1999) are the two theories which have proved to be more effective in incorporating most of these elements into an organic theoretical framework. The approach proposed by Waldinger et al. (1990) is the first attempt in this field of research to incorporate the role of external opportunities offered by the host environment, such as market structure, access to ownership and job market conditions, into the decision of a migrant to start a new business. These elements are seen to be constantly interacting with other determinants, such as the amount of resources shared by the immigrant enclave, especially the ethnic community in which the potential entrepreneur is embedded. The mixed-embeddedness model stresses the importance of institutional and legal factors in determining the strategies and the success of immigrant entrepreneurs: the claim is that the analysis of demand and supply mechanisms is not sufficient to explain the opportunities provided by the host environment, and that more attention should be drawn on elements such as labour market policies, migration laws, social benefits rights and the banking system. All the main approaches identified by the existing literature on migrant entrepreneurship ignore the fact that the economic environment varies widely on a national and regional scale, offering completely different opportunities from one place to another (Volery, 2007). Therefore, such frameworks provide no theoretical explanation of why immigrant economic activities tend to cluster strongly within the same country, especially when manufacturing activities are concerned. Regardless of the interpretation used to explain this trend, it is evident that the opportunity structure should be inspected at a national, but also at a regional and local level: such an approach appears to be in line with that used by policy makers in most advanced countries, where the majority of public support programmes to migrant entrepreneurship are implemented at the local level (Desiderio and Mestres-Domenech, 2011, p. 161). This attitude stems from the recent trend within political economy to develop place-based strategies that go beyond the traditional ‘one-size-fits-all’ development approaches, exploiting the potential of both the territories and the individuals that live and interact in them (Barca, 2009; Barca et al., 2012; OECD, 2009). In this respect, place-based policies are a particularly effective tool to tackle the persistent underutilization of potential and reducing persistent social exclusion (Barca, 2009, p. VII).
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