دانلود رایگان مقاله لاتین چگونگی کارکرد بازاریابی سبز از سایت الزویر
عنوان فارسی مقاله:
چگونه بازاریابی سبز کار می کند: اقدامات، مادیات، و تصاویر
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:
How green marketing works: Practices, materialities, and images
مقاله سال 2015
بخشی از مقاله انگلیسی:
A practice theory approach to green marketing
Within marketing, practice theory has,for example, been used to discuss how marketing constructs markets (e.g., Araujo, 2007; Cochoy, 1998, 2009; Kjellberg & Helgesson, 2006, 2007) how corporate branding is accomplished in/through organizational practices (Ja¨rventie-Thesleff, Moisander, & Laine, 2011), how service work practices relates to organizational logic (Svingstedt, 2012), and how value is formed in and through service marketing and consumption practices (Echeverri & Ska˚le´n, 2011; Korkman, 2006). Practice theory is thus one of the theoretical resources employed within the emergent field of marketing-as-practice (Ska˚le´n & Hackley, 2011). Continuing in this vein, I will draw on practice theory to conceptualize green marketing as a complex of practices. In whatfollows, I draw on three generaltraits of practice theory in order to devise a version of practice theory to be used in the analysis of green marketing. First is the focus and status of practices. From a practice theory approach, practices are the smallest units of analysis, the lens through which the social and its multiple productions are to be viewed. According to Schatzki, a practice approach involves analyses that either ‘‘develop an account of practices’’ and/or ‘‘treat the field of practices as the place to study the nature and transformation of their subject matter’’ (Schatzki, 2001: 2). Following Reckwitz, a practice is often defined as: . . .a routinized type of behavior which consists of several elements, interconnected to one another: forms of bodily activities, forms of mental activities, ‘‘things’’ and their use, a background knowledge in the form of understanding, know-how, states of emotion and motivational knowledge. (Reckwitz, 2002: 250) A practice involves (human) bodies trained to behave in certain ways and to engage with the world in specific ways. The individual is here an embodied performer of practice and the meeting point of multiple practices (Reckwitz, 2002; Shove, Pantzar, & Watson, 2012). Second, most practice approaches take a heterogeneous approach, using the ‘‘practice unit’’ to connect many elements previously treated in isolation. Practices, Reckwitz tells us, involve and depend on understandings, know-how, feelings, and material artefacts: A practice — a way of cooking, of consuming, of working, of investigating, of taking care of oneself or of others, etc. — forms so to speak a ‘block’ whose existence necessarily depends on the existence and specific interconnectedness of these elements, and which cannot be reduced to any one of these single elements. (Reckwitz, 2002: 249—250) Simplifying the heterogeneous approaches somewhat, Shove and colleagues have developed a scheme in which the multiple elements of practice are collapsed into three: materials, competences, and meanings (Hand, Shove, & Southerton, 2005; Shove & Pantzar, 2005; Shove, Watson, Hand, & Ingram, 2007; Shove et al., 2012). Competence includes background knowledge, know-how, and skills — all the necessary cognitive capabilities required to successfully perform a practice (Hand et al., 2005). Meaning is used to collapse what Reckwitz (2002) describes as mental activities, emotion, and motivational knowledge. Meaning thus includes ‘‘the social and symbolic significance of participation at any one moment’’ (Shove et al., 2012: 23). The term materials encompass what we normally understand as materials such as objects, tools, and infrastructures as well as the body itself (Shove et al., 2012). The term is used to denote the material dimension of practices, that is, the hardware required to perform a practice. The separation between these three different types of elements is only analytical. In practice, these elements co-constitute each other; they form inseparable socio-material assemblages. Any one practice is thus dependent on a specific configuration of meanings, competences, and materials — a configuration that can, and often does, change over time, as old links are broken and new ones are made (Hand et al., 2005; Shove et al., 2012). From this perspective, to think in terms of practice is to treat materiality and its meanings, images, and things, and humans and non-human entities alike as simultaneously and intrinsically interlinked. Taking a socio-material approach means acknowledging that things ‘‘play an active part in the generation, stabilization, and reproduction of social order’’ (Preda, 1999: 349) and can also be carriers of practices (Hagberg & Kjellberg, 2010). However, of course, the agency of materiality is dependent on the specific practice (or practices) in which it is incorporated and the specific configuration of which it forms a part (Shove et al., 2012). Finally, practice studies often take an explicitly performative approach. Every practice is both dependent upon and a producer of a set of elements, a socio-material assemblage. A practice as an entity, that is, as a recognizable conjunction of elements, is held together (and transformed) by multiple performances — the doings of the practice (Shove et al., 2012). It is thus through socio-material practices that links are formed and broken; it is through practices that the social itself is enacted (Law & Urry, 2004; Schatzki, Cetina, & Savigny, 2001; Shove et al., 2012).
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