دانلود رایگان مقاله لاتین نوآوری مدل کسب و کار از سایت الزویر
عنوان فارسی مقاله:
انتقال پایداری از طریق نوآوری مدل کسب و کار: به سمت درک سیستم
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:
Governing sustainability transitions through business model innovation: Towards a systems understanding
سال انتشار : 2016
بخشی از مقاله انگلیسی:
2. Theoretical background
In this section we introduce both the business model (BM) and socio-technical systems approaches, highlighting key insights relevantto our study. In the socio-technical section we focus in particular on the multi-level perspective on transitions (Smith et al., 2010, Markard et al., 2012) and the literature on large technical systems (Vleuten, 2004). Our overview of the BM literature begins by summarising fundamental insights from the management and strategy fields (Zott et al., 2011), and more recent studies which examine sustainable business models (Boons and Lüdeke-Freund, 2013). 2.1. Socio-technical approaches 2.1.1. Transitions and the multi-level perspective Scholars in the field of socio-technical systems and sustainability transitions are concerned with the transformation of technical systems, such as the supply of electricity, gas and water to consumers or the provision of housing and transport (Steward, 2012). The core unit of analysis is the socio-technical regime which is composed of various actor groups, institutions and infrastructures aligned around the secure and predictable delivery of a particular societal function, such as heating, shelter or mobility. Drawing on earlier insights of evolutionary economists (Nelson and Winter, 1977), Rip and Kemp (Rip and Kemp, 1998) view regimes as constitutive of cognitive routines, search heuristics and engineering practices aligned around a particular dominant design (e.g. the internal combustion engine), which span firms and sometimes industries. Subsequently Geels broadened this framing to encapsulate a wider range of social groups, including suppliers, users, and public bodies, with regimes as “the semi-coherent set of rules that orient and coordinate the activities of the social groups that reproduce the various elements of socio-technical systems” (Geels, 2011: p. 27). The transition from one regime type to another involves a fundamental reordering and realignment of both the social and technical components of systems. Systems are viewed in dynamic co-evolutionary terms, the causal interactions between actors, institutions and material infrastructure shape system change. In transitions studies this is framed in terms of a ‘multi-level perspective’ (MLP) (Geels, 2002) which theorises change as a dynamic within and between three levels − niches, regimes and landscapes. These are delineated by their degrees of socio-technical structuration. Meso level regimes, as outlined above, are highly structured and established alignments of actors, institutions and technologies. Incumbent actors can modulate co-evolutionary dynamics in line with their own capacities and interests; innovation is managed and predictable, with incremental change along a relatively well defined technological trajectory. Micro-level niches, on the other hand, are spaces where socio-technical interactions are less well structured, thus more radical innovations are possible. Activities in niches and regimes are influenced by an external ‘landscape’, which is largely beyond the control ofthe system actors, e.g. climate change and globalisation. Given the right landscape conditions, radical niche innovations can begin to influence and potentially overthrow dominant regimes. ‘Transition pathways’, which vary depending on the nature and timing of interactions between these levels, have been developed by Geels and Schot (2007).
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