دانلود رایگان مقاله لاتین فناوری فعلی متد تونل زنی با سپر از سایت الزویر
عنوان فارسی مقاله:
وضعیت و فناوری کنونی روش تونل زنی با سپر در ژاپن
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:
Present status and technology of shield tunneling method in Japan
سال انتشار :2003
بخشی از مقاله انگلیسی:
5. Actual conditions of earth pressure and water pressure affecting shield tunnels
5.1. Present status of design method for shield tunnels Among a number of shield tunnels constructed so far, there are practically few cases where the loads affecting segments and occurring strain are measured at closed type shield tunnels. Generally speaking, the earth pressure is measured by means of earth pressure meters placed behind the segments. The pressure measured in thisway includesboth the effective earth pressure and water pressure. In following sections, the pressure measured by means of earth pressure meters is called the earth pressure or the total earth pressure. However, there are a number of cases where the water pressure is measured by means of the measurement of ground water flowing into bored holes. The bored holes are constructed from grouting holesin segmentsthrough the hardened grouting material after the segmental lining is exposed to ground and structurally stabilized. Thischapter focuseson the examplesof the measurement of earth pressure and water pressure, and describes the earth pressure and water pressure in connection with design methods, regarding them as expressing some characteristics of the loads that are actually affecting the tunnels. 5.2. Long-term loads affecting simple circular shield tunnels 5.2.1. Measurement results in clayey layers This section shows the cases of earth pressure and water pressure measurement at tunnels in clayey alluvium and clayey diluvium. These two tunnels are constructed by using slurry shields. The external diameter and overburden of one tunnel are 3.95 m and 22 m, respectively, and those of the other tunnel are 4.95 m and 13 m. Figs. 15 and 16 show the distribution of earth pressure in the circumferential direction and changesin the ratio of effective earth pressure to total earth pressure in alluvium as time passes, respectively. In the same way, those in diluvium are shown in Figs. 17 and 18. At both tunnels, the earth pressure gradually changes for a long period. Thisisthought to result from the changesin atmospheric temperature (Ariizumi et al., 1998). From these measurement results, the following can be described for the earth pressure and water pressure having affect over a long period.
Solar Thermal Power Technology: Present Status and Ideas for the ... www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00908319808970052 by D YOGI GOSWAMI - 1998 - Cited by 137 - Related articles Solar Thermal Power Technology: Present Status and Ideas for the Future. D. YOGI GOSWAMI. Solar Energy and Energy Conversion Laboratory. Department of Mechanical Engineering. University of Florida. Gainesville, Florida. Rapid industrial developments and the resulting need for additional electrical power in major ... Solar Thermal Power Technology: Present Status and Ideas for the ... www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00908319808970052 by D YOGI GOSWAMI - 1998 - Cited by 137 - Related articles D. YOGI GOSWAMI. Address correspondence to D. Yogi Goswami, Solar Energy and Conversion Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Florida, P.O. Box 116300, Gainesville, FL 32611-6300. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org ... Present Status | Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology ... meity.gov.in/content/present-status Aug 31, 2015 - Present Status. SWANs have been made operational in 34 States namely Andhra Pradesh, Chandigarh, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Gujarat, Goa, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Kerala, Karnataka, Lakshadweep, Maharashtra, Orissa, Punjab, Puducherry, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, ...