دانلود رایگان مقاله لاتین شرکت خدمات اقتصاد نوظهور از سایت الزویر
عنوان فارسی مقاله:
بین المللی کردن شرکت های خدماتی از اقتصادهای نوظهور: چشم انداز داخلی
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:
The Internationalization of Service Firms from Emerging Economies: An Internalization Perspective
سال انتشار : 2015
بخشی از مقاله انگلیسی:
Internalization and strategic choices
Internalization theory has its roots in transaction cost economics (Coase, 1937; Williamson, 1971) and assumes markets are imperfect and may even fail in important intermediate products, such as information and knowledge (Rugman, 1981). The transfer of information and knowledge through markets often suffers from market failure, because once a piece of information is known to the buyer, there is no longer a need to pay for it (Arrow, 1973). This is also known as an information paradox, and implies that the incentive to organize information and knowledge transfers within an internal market is high (Buckley and Casson, 1976). Information is considered a critical intermediate product for many service industries. Accordingly, service firms internationalize to internalize information flows across borders (Boddewyn et al., 1986; Rugman, 1981). Hence, internalization in service industries is likely to reduce transaction costs, lower customer risks and assist in exploiting existing market-making and data analysis skills across borders (Boddewyn et al., 1986). An additional reason for internalization in the service industries lies in the fact that knowledge embedded in services is difficult, if not impossible, to protect (Guillén and Tschoegl, 2000). Even if knowledge was protectable, weak institutional environments in some emerging and developing countries may further reduce the chances that an internationalizing firm can appropriate the gains from information and knowledge development (Acemoglu et al., 2005). For these reasons, the ownership and control of foreign assets are important for protecting firm-specific knowledge and for avoiding its dissipation to competitors. Intangibles, such as information and knowledge-based resources and capabilities, constitute FSAs. CSAs, in turn, refer to production factors; e.g., competitive wages, costs of capital or land and natural resources (Rugman, 2005; Rugman and Verbeke, 1992). Within an emerging market perspective, these CSAs are likely to be irrelevant as even the cost of capital and transaction costs tend to be relatively high compared to those in more advanced economies (Khanna et al., 2005). Moreover, conceivable CSAs can be “endogenized” and thus transformed into new FSAs (Rugman and Verbeke, 2001). We therefore concentrate on FSAs.
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