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عنوان فارسی مقاله:
ارتباطات بازاریابی آنلاین و قصد کودکتان برای مصرف مواد غذایی ناسالم
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:
Online marketing communications and childhood’s intention to consume unhealthy food
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بخشی از مقاله انگلیسی:
2.1. Online food marketing to children Marketing communications, especially advertising, aim to deliver a specific message to the target audience through various platforms (i.e. online and offline). Communications are most effective when targeting certain behavior rather than behavioral classifications or objectives (Fishbein, 2000). They can be used to enhance awareness through greater exposure (Chen and Green, 2009). Advertising can also endorse certain behaviors and at the same time diminish the strength of the attitudes or perceived norms that lead to the opposite behaviors or reinforce the existing beliefs and attitudes related to the targeted behaviors, so that their roles are highlighted in determining intentions and actual action (Agha, 2003; Fishbein and Cappella, 2006). As one of the important elements of the marketing mix, online advertising plays a significant role in companies’ communications with their target market (Belch et al., 1985). Advertising can strengthen a behavior, as desired by the company, and at the same time reduce the strength of the attitudes or perceived norms that result in unwanted behaviors (Fishbein and Cappella, 2006). Supporting this view, Verbeke et al. (1999) find that marketing communications influence attitudes, thereby have an impact on the behavior regarding fresh meat consumption in Belgium. As advertising has an impact on customer attitudes and motivates customers to repeat a certain behavior over time, it is proposed that online advertising has a positive influence on customer habits. Recent research reveals that nutritional disorders and poor eating habits among children are related to food advertising effects (Costa et al., 2012). Therefore online advertising can be considered as an important socialization agent in children’s food consumption and preference, although there is scant evidence on its role and effects (Young, 2003). While overweight and obesity are a growing global concern, more and more advertising and promotional efforts have been focused on encouraging the consumption of unhealthy food, fast food in particular (Clarke and Svanaes, 2014). In 2012, the US fast food restaurants alone spent a total of $4.6 billion on advertising, increasing by 8% from 2009 (Fast Food Marketing, 2013). In addition, it was found that in 2013 children under six saw about three fast food advertisements every day, whereas 12 to 17 years old saw approximately five advertisements daily (Ramrayka, 2014). The majority of food brands advertising to children on television is also promoted on the Internet through their corporate websites, popular children’s websites (e.g., nick.com, neopets.com), ads placed in existing video and especially social networking sites (e.g. banners, sponsored stories). A report on food marketing to children and teens from the Federal Trade Commission reveals that “[f]ood marketers had their own Facebook and MySpace pages, links to Twitter accounts, dedicated portions of YouTube, and used other popular social media sites” (Common Sense Media, 2014, p. 12). For example, children and young users aged 13–24 are most likely to like four pages: Domino’s Pizza Australia, Pringles, McDonalds Australia and Cadbury Eyebrows (Dunlevy, 2014). Most of them are professionally managed and appear to be part of an overall marketing strategy. On the other hand, food advertising is one of the main factors behind children’s increasing energy consumption, which is a more important contributor to increasing overweight and obesity than decreasing physical exercise levels in Australia (MacKay et al., 2011). Hence, this research is devoted to investigating the role of advertising in promoting an unhealthy lifestyle. Furthermore, recent research demonstrates that children are bombarded with a large number of marketing messages on social networking sites in the forms of banner ads or sponsored messages in news feed (O’Keeffe and Clarke-Peatson, 2011; Dietz, 2013). Researchers raise a concern on the link between youth-oriented brands and a strong presence on social networking sites (Rideout, 2014). Fast food companies have used many tactics to engage young audience on their websites, including images, videos, giveaway vouchers and toys. This engagement strategy attempts to touch on the concepts of fun and novelty, which most likely appeal to young kids (Franchin et al., 2012). For example, young consumers are encouraged to “like” companies’ Facebook page or sign up for their Twitter feeds, usually in exchange for premiums such as toys or discounts (Federal Trade Commission, 2012). In fact, food marketing to children featuring toys is prevalent, making up 70 percent of fastfood ads targeted at children (Otten, 2014). On Facebook, young users’ activities, for instance liking a page or posting a comment, may show in news feed of their Facebook friends’ sites as endorsements or sponsored stories (Goel, 2013). In fact, online food marketing to children is more sophisticated and complex because it is often harder to detect the borderlines between content and pure advertising on the Internet than traditional media such as television (American Psychological Association, 2013). Despite the increase in concerns, little research has been done in the area of advertising to children on social networking sites, including advertising effects and children’s exposure, awareness, and understanding (Rideout, 2014). The majority of extant research investigating children’s use of social networking sites has mainly concentrated on privacy, social interactions and cyberbullying (Boyd, 2014; Lenhart, 2012; Livingstone, 2008; Valkenburg and Peter, 2007).
Unhealthy food, integrated marketing communication and power: a ... www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09581596.2013.878454 by M Jackson - 2014 - Cited by 13 - Related articles Jan 24, 2014 - Public health advocates have repeatedly highlighted parallels between food marketing and childhood obesity. Yet existing literature has not explored the connection between the promotion of unhealthy foods and beverages, certain characteristics of integrated marketing communication (IMC) and the ... Advances in Communication Research to Reduce Childhood Obesity https://books.google.com/books?isbn=1461455111 Jerome D. Williams, Keryn E Pasch, Chiquita A. Collins - 2013 - Medical Michaela brings a keen interest in marketing communications, health, and broader social issues to her work. Dr. Paul Harrison, Professor Boyd ... She was responsible for examining the impact of emerging food marketing initiatives (i.e., social and digital media) on children and adolescents. Johanna earned an AB degree at ... Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? https://books.google.com/books?isbn=030913384X Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board, Committee on Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity - 2007 - Medical Advertising and Marketing Communications The media and entertainment industries have a tremendous reach into the lives of the American public. These industries have important opportunities and responsibilities to depict and promote healthful diets and physical activity among children and youth (IOM, 2006). Among the ...