دانلود رایگان مقاله لاتین رابطه بین استرس، افسردگی و متابولیسم و تمرینات ورزشی عنوان فارسی مقاله:
رابطه میان استرس، افسردگی، ناراحتی های قلبی و عروقی و تغییرات متابولیک و ورزش
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:
Relationship among stress, depression, cardiovascular and metabolic changes and physical exercise
سال انتشار : 2016
بخشی از مقاله انگلیسی:
We searched MEDLINE and SCIELO for articles on chronic stress, cardiac and metabolic changes, and exercise published between 2000 and 2012. We also included articles published before 2000 in which the concept of stress was defined. In the search, we used the following terms: "physiological stress", "exercise", "cardiovascular system", and "metabolic diseases". Inclusion criteria were: observational, experimental or review studies conducted to investigate the cardiac and metabolic effects of chronic psychological stress alone or in association with physical activity and exercise, mood disorders and/or depression. Studies investigating the effect of exercise on functions that did not include cardiac and metabolic changes were excluded, as well as studies that did not examine stress-related mood disorders. Articles on other types of stress (other than mental/psychological stress) were also excluded. Literature Review Stress Mental stress is considered one of the most significant health problems in modern society. It can be defined as a subjective experience triggered by any aversive stimulus that results in both generalized and nonspecific systemic changes. The term stress was originally employed in physics to describe the degree of deformity sustained by a material when subjected to stress or tension (1). However, it is known that the definition of the word "stress" is based on ancient conceptions dating back to before Christ. These conceptions recognized health as a state of harmony, and disease as a state of disharmony (2). It was based on these important principles that great physiologists such as Claude Bernard, Cannon and Selye started to correlate the loss of homeostasis with the emergence of diseases. Selye (10) is considered the first to use and popularize the term stress in a physiological sense. This author noted that a series of similar responses were triggered after injection of a particular drug or saline in rats (10). Analyzing the responses obtained, Selye attributed the stimulus caused by the injections (and which seemed to trigger adaptive responses in the body of those animals) to an attempt to maintain homeostasis and face a situation perceived as threatening to the life and internal equilibrium of the animal (10). Because these stimuli caused generalized and nonspecific hormonal responses — evidenced by the presence of peptic ulcers, atrophy of the immune system and increased adrenal glands — Selye called the phenomenon "general adaptation syndrome". According to the author, it consisted of three phases, namely: alarm or excitement, resistance and exhaustion (11). In the first phase, there is activation of the sympathetic nervous system and adrenal system, with release of catecholamines (by the adrenal medulla) and glucocorticoids (by the adrenal cortex), in order to maintain or restore homeostasis. This restoration leads to the second phase, i.e., resistance. In this phase, the reaction capacity decreases and the body develops adaptive mechanisms to cope with the stressor stimulus. If the stimulus remains, the adaptive response ceases, and the third phase, i.e., exhaustion, begins. This phase is responsible for the deleterious effects triggered by stress, such as cardiovascular disease, metabolic, kidney and immunological disorders, and even death (10, 11, 12). Although different organisms respond similarly to the same stressor stimulus, it is known that each organism is not exactly constant and tends to respond differently at times, due to its physiological variations. Thus, the classic definition of stress has been reinterpreted in recent years in the light of this concept and enabled us to see that the mediators of the reaction may have both protective and harmfull effects to the body, depending on the time and intensity of exposure. A new terminology has been used ever since to describe a biological response to an aversive stimulus: allostasis and allostatic load (12) (Figure 1). According McEwen (12), these two terms allow a more precise and restricted definition of the word "stress". Allostasis may be used to refer to adaptive processes used to maintain the stability of an organism. The main mediators of allostasis are the hormones of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA), catecholamines and cytokines. When these responses vary beyond the limits of homeostatic mechanisms — which exert significant influence over vital functions such as breathing, cardiovascular tone and intermediary metabolism (13) — they are called allostatic load (1, 12). Thus, allostatic load causes an imbalance of primary mediators and leads to the overproduction of some of them and the inadequate production of others. This disarray is responsible for the onset and development of various diseases related to stress (12).
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