دانلود رایگان مقاله لاتین تجارت چین در تقاطع از سایت الزویر
عنوان فارسی مقاله:
تجارت چین در تقاطع: موسسات، نوآوری و رقابت بین المللی
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:
China Business at a Crossroads: Institutions, Innovation, and International Competitiveness
سال انتشار : 2016
بخشی از مقاله انگلیسی:
China business in an innovation economy Abundant
cheap labor, low operating costs, lax government regulations, and rapid economic growth with a population of over a billion have been among the major reasons why foreign firms seek to invest and conduct business in China. These are also some of the factors that provide a home-based advantage for Chinese firms to compete in overseas markets (Child and Rodrigues, 2005; Luo et al., 2010). As the world economy becomes increasingly innovation- rather than efficiencydriven, how would this affect China business as it relates to both foreign and domestic firms? For the foreign firms, China business has traditionally concentrated on conducting low-cost manufacturing of products in China for export back home and/or for sales in other world markets. More recently, as China’s economy becomes more developed and its consumers become more affluent, foreign firms started treating China as a major market for revenue generation. Some have also started doing R&D in the country, with aims to develop customized products for local consumers and also to leverage these products through “reverse innovation” for sales in other world markets (Holmes et al., in press; Tung, in press). As the labor and other operating costs in China have increased substantially in the last decade (Morris, 2015), many foreign firms are now considering moving their China-based manufacturing to less expensive locations such as Vietnam and other less-developed countries. As economic competition shifts from efficiency to innovation, firms need to develop new ideas (products, services, technology, business models, etc.) with high value-add, or apply existing ideas in new and better ways to gain an advantage over competitors. To do this, they need to invest heavily in R&D and hire employees who are creative and self-motivated to challenge the status quo and generate new ideas for improvement. While most innovations in the commercial sector are of an incremental nature for small gains, the highly successful companies such as Apple and Google (now Alphabet) know the importance of investing in cutting-edge R&D to develop disruptive (Christensen et al., 2015) and/or breakthrough innovations (Gassmann et al., 2010) for big payoffs. Is China a desirable location for innovative companies from overseas to conduct R&D for a competitive advantage? Does China offer the best conditions to help innovative companies develop new ideas with high value-add that they can’t find in other countries? If not, what changes would China need to make for improvement? As mentioned earlier in discussing the Holmes et al. (in press) study, the main factor that attracted foreign firms to establish R&D centers in China is target industry growth, which means potential for increased sales of customized products for an expanding local market. Their study also found that the currently weak intellectual property protection in China is not conducive to attracting foreign R&D investment, particularly in industries where there is high innovation investment due to increased expropriation risks. While China has in recent years introduced new laws to help strengthen intellectual property protection, their effectiveness has been hampered by weak and inconsistent enforcement, as noted in the Hitt and Xu (in press) article. This problem is made worse by the lack of supportive social norms and mindsets among the general population to guide behavior in protection of intellectual property. Given this, foreign firms might be reluctant to conduct the highest value-add R&D in China and limit the work there to the lower-level R&D until further improvement in intellectual protection is achieved.
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