دانلود رایگان مقاله لاتین بررسی سازمان امارات متحده عربی از سایت الزویر
عنوان فارسی مقاله:
به سمت فعالیت های سازمانی در امارات متحده عربی: یک رویکرد مطالعه موردی
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:
Towards organisational activism in the UAE: A case study approach.
سال انتشار : 2017
بخشی از مقاله انگلیسی:
2. Literature review
Prevalent PR literature covers functions and management within the four models of PR (Grunig and Hunt, 1984). Public relations activities bring attention to the brand (Moloney, 2006), contribute to achieving the organisation’s goals and sustain its relationships with its audiences (Melbourne, 2012). In the normative view, public relations’ general aim is to influence opinion and behavior. The power of public relations is often manifested in its ability to influence publics through persuasive communications. In this way, practitioners ‘utilize communication to create power. (. . .) When publics accept the practitioner’s view of the world, hegemony is created and publics cede power to the organizations. Organizations can use power to dominate publics and much of the critical public relations research seeks to illuminate this hegemonic domination’ (Coombs and Holladay, 2012, p. 881). Scholars have condemned this functionalist and behaviorist perspective, while adopting different approaches (see Ihlen and Verhoeven, 2015 for a list of approaches). One of the alternatives to this normative model is found in the post-modernist approach to PR, which views it as able to ‘engender both power and resistance’ (Edwards, 2012, p. 19). This approach raises both an activist role for practitioners who make use of their conscience ‘rather than the conscience of the organisation’ (Holtzhausen and Voto, 2002, p. 66) as well as ethics for societal wellbeing (Macnamara, 2014). Examining how practitioners can become change agents, Holtzhausen and Voto argue that, ‘[T]he postmodern practitioner also can assist the organization itself to become activist by resisting dominant and harmful power in society in general. Organizations that take on government policies that harm the environment or take a stand on behalf of marginalized social groups will be a typical example of such activism’ (2002, p. 63). Recent studies (Edwards, 2012; L’Etang, Mckie, Snow, & Xifra, 2014; L’Etang, 2009) that have focused on critical thinking about PR and postmodernist approaches to PR have called for PR research outside the mainstream that reconceptualises PR and relocates it in ‘a sociological and cultural context’ (Macnamara, 2014, p. 72). The work of Edwards and Hodges (2011) is case in point of the cultural approach to PR. Examples of the social approach to PR can be found in Ihlen, Van Ruler, & Fredriksson (2009) as well as Ihlen and Verhoeven’s (2015). Holtzhausen (2012, p. 365) speaks in favour of an additional approach, social activism arguing that PR practitioners should focus more on ‘conflict and resistance’. Building on previous works, essentially Latin American, that promote empowerment to ‘serve genuine concerns of citizens’, Hodges and McGrath (2011, p. 91) call for an approach that involves dialogue and participation between and among communities and PR practitioners. They argue that communities enact social transformation when they are involved in the co-creation of the meaning of messages and when they consider truthful the purpose of the communication programmes.
Green Activism in Post-Socialist Europe and the Former Soviet Union https://books.google.com/books?isbn=1317979672 Adam Fagan, JoAnn Carmin - 2014 - Political Science In the Baltics, organisations such as the Society of Nature and Monument ... many organisations sponsored outdoor activities, some were oriented towards ... Managing Activism: A Guide to Dealing with Activists and Pressure Groups https://books.google.com/books?isbn=074943435X Denise Deegan - 2001 - Business & Economics To the left of the zone, the organisation tries to dominate activists using powers ... together to move the process forward towards a positive-sum game where all ... [PDF]Local Party Organisation, Activism and Campaigning in Post ... https://ecpr.eu/Filestore/PaperProposal/11d2d064-5c0e-4ecd-a1d9-8aca85e098b7.pdf by A Clark - Cited by 6 - Related articles the mean level of organisational activism amongst all responding local parties ..... Bennie, L. and Clark, A. (2003) 'Towards Moderate Pluralism: Scotland's Post-. [PDF]Voluntary sector activism in the UK and New Zealand - Lancaster ... www.lancaster.ac.uk/fass/projects/placing-vol-activism/.../VSSN-NCVO_CM-RK.pdf interrelationship between government, voluntary organisations and activists. ... towards activism in both senses of the term: that is, i) how their organisation ...