دانلود رایگان مقاله لاتین بازآفرینی موسسات روابط عمومی از سایت الزویر
عنوان فارسی مقاله:
بازآفرینی موسسات روابط عمومی اولیه ایالات متحده: تجزیه و تحلیل دفتر تبلیغات و اطلاعات 1818-1991
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:
Reconsidering early U.S. public relations institutions: An analysis of publicity and information bureaux 1891–1918
سال انتشار : 2016
بخشی از مقاله انگلیسی:
Public relations historiography
Publicity and information bureaux are important not only because of their significance within U.S. public relations development, but because their existence contravenes the received history of American PR. Early histories of PR embraced a linear, progressive narrative of public relations development (Bernays, 1952; Cutlip, 1994,1995). This narrative rooted the beginning of American public relations in late nineteenth century press agentry and argued that by the 1920s PR had become a stand-alone profession that was moving away from its unethical press agent roots. These histories focused on prominent male figures, notably Edward Bernays and Ivy Lee, as leading major transitions in the professionalization of the field. This type of history led to a neat compartmentalization of public relations’ past that was popular because of its simplicity and easily understandable periodization. However, like any area of history, oversimplification and neatly drawn periodization leaves out much historical richness and nuance. As a result an incomplete and inaccurate historical account of public relations came to dominate PR scholarship (Bernays, 1952; Cutlip and Center, 1958). The genesis of this early inaccurate PR history narrative can be traced to books written by Bernays (1952) and Cutlip and Center (1958). Bernays (1923, 1928) began writing about PR tactics and strategies in the 1920s, focusing on how to influence public opinion. However, in 1952 Bernays wrote a textbook, Public Relations, which provided a history of the field up until that time. In Public Relations Bernays argued that early professional public relations was press agentry, which used unethical manipulation of the press and staged stunts to promote entertainment groups. By the early 1900s Bernays wrote that corporations used publicity. While he gave a tacit nod to Standard Oil’s PR man Ivy Lee, Bernays (1952) situated himself as the father of modern public relations practice. This first narrative set many of the unquestioned truisms of PR history: press agentry was unethical, early PR was exclusively done for entertainment clients, and Bernays was the father of modern PR practice. As a result ofthis history, other historical inaccuracies emerged such as: PR was created in the twentieth century; Americans invented PR and distributed it to the world; professionalized PR practice was a post-World War I invention; and corporate public relations developed after entertainment press agentry. Bernays’s (1952, 1965) work was not the only source of these historical inaccuracies. In 1958 Cutlip and Center’s widely popular textbook, Effective Public Relations, reiterated this narrative presented in Bernays’s (1952) Public Relations. Like Bernays, Cutlip and Center (1958) were not trained historians, but were PR educators who were innovators in undergraduate PR training. While their book did not acknowledge Bernays’s (1952) Public Relations specifically, they reiterated almost verbatim his narrative of press agentry, the transition of PR during World War I, and the evolution of professionalized PR practice.
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