دانلود رایگان مقاله لاتین اطلاعات cis از سایت الزویر
عنوان فارسی مقاله:
یادگیری توسط شکست. تمرین تجربی در اطلاعات CIS
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:
Learning-by-failing. An empirical exercise on CIS data
سال انتشار : 2016
بخشی از مقاله انگلیسی:
2. Literature review
The idea that you learn from experience dates back to Adam Smith at least. Learning takes place through a process of trial and error; it happens as a result of repeated attempts to solve problems as they appear.1 It is therefore a dynamic process that only takes place in the development stage of techno-economic activities. Failure is one of the experiences that makes problems emerge and become manifest, thus triggering learning processes. From the point of view of behavioural theory of the firm (Cyert and March, 1963; Levinthal and March, 1993), organisational learning (for a survey, see Barker Scott, 2011) associated with organisational routines stored within the firm. These routines can adequately represent(following Herbert Simon, ‘satisficingly’ well) a firm’s response to the challenges coming from the outside environment (Nelson and Winter, 1982). If a routine can cope with the outside world,then itis functionally appropriate and does not need to be changed or questioned. Routines are defined on the strength of past actions, and adopted as a result of strategies to explore and exploit the environment (March, 1991) Once an organisational 1 For an analysis of the difficulties of defining the concept of knowledge and its relationships with techno-economic performance, see Schneider (2007). routine has reached a satisficing level, it can presumably remain unaltered until it repeatedly proves incapable of representing the world correctly. If a routine is judged successful, it engenders no search activities, but only marginal maintenance procedures (for a review see Becker, 2004). However, if an organisational behaviour is leading to failure, it is assumed to misrepresent the world, so a procedure (a meta routine) is implemented to ascertain when and where it failed, and to correct it. This search process is implicitly a learning process. This means that firms probably perceive certain problems more effectively once they have actually encountered them. In other words, problems are normally encountered (and presumably solved) by innovative firms. The learning process is also more focused in the case of failure than it would be in the case of success.2 Failure points more clearly to the new directions the learning process may take because it focuses the firm’s attention and underscores the crucial elements that led to a subpar performance. In this sense, failure is a better ‘focusing device’ than success. The main bulk ofthe literature on this topic was developed from an organisational perspective with several papers addressing the issue of the ‘benefit of failure’. All these papers analyse case studies on major disasters. The reason for choosing them is because catastrophic failures are easily observed in their full deployment and great visibility, both economic and political (on this point, see the Collins and Pinch (1998) book on the Golem of technology, for instance), and this makes them ideal for the purpose of future organisational and political learning (Desai, 2010b). In his analysis of the Xerox business model Chesbrough (2010), supports the idea that failure can provide and convey new ways to understand and implement innovative approaches within an organisation. If failure is perceived as an experiment, new data are created that might reveal opportunities that would otherwise have gone unnoticed. Chiou et al. (2012) find in the pharmaceutical industry that knowledge gained from both successes and failures contributes to learning, but failures are particularly important because they may pointto hitherto-neglected routes. This increases the chances of finding a different route for patenting new drugs, one that had previously not emerged because other successful routes had been preventing further exploration.
The Nanobiotechnology Handbook - Page 543 - Google Books Result https://books.google.com/books?isbn=1439838690 Yubing Xie - 2012 - Medical ... of molecular structures for cationic lipids is still largely an empirical exercise. ... It was found that a lipid with linoleyl moieties containing two cis double bonds ... Download the monthly review - Research and Innovation Observatory https://rio.jrc.ec.europa.eu/en/file/10675/download?token=rlb63FjO An empirical exercise on CIS data. Research Policy 45(2): ... tested, through a two step econometric model, on the 2008 CIS Innovation survey dataset. The. [PDF]Empirical Exercise 9.2 Calculations for this exercise are ... - UniCH https://www.unich.it/~vitale/Solution-Empirical-Esercise-9.pdf Empirical Exercise 9.2. Calculations for this exercise are carried out in the STATA file EE_9_2.do. The following regressions will be referenced in these answers.