دانلود رایگان مقاله لاتین آکادمیک صنعت و علم و فناوری از سایت الزویر
عنوان فارسی مقاله:
ارتباط علم و فناوری از طریق همکاری آکادمیک-صنعت
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:
Bridging science and technology through academic–industry partnerships
سال انتشار : 2016
بخشی از مقاله انگلیسی:
2. Academic engagement, university entrepreneurship and government funding
Merton (1957) first pointed out the distinctive incentive systems between the institutions of science and technology. Science is primarily embodied in research universities where scientists are free to choose the direction of research, outputs are mainly encoded in the form of peer-reviewed publications, and the reward system is based on priority. Technology, in contrast, encodes ideas in protected modes, using patents, trademarks or copyrights to facilitate commercialization and appropriation of economic rewards (Dasgupta and David, 1994). The two institutions also differ in the nature of goals accepted as legitimate, as well as norms of behavior, especially withregard to the disclosure of knowledge. Science is concerned with additions to the stock of open knowledge, whereas technology is concerned with additions to the stream of rents that may be derived from possession of private knowledge. Though theoretically the two institutions are distinct, starting with the Bayh–Dole act of 1980 (Mowery et al., 2001) and analogous policies in Europe, the boundary between science and technology have become blurred as universities started to transfer technology by patenting their research and increasing their involvement with industry. The literature that examines the relationship between science and technology has illustrated their interplay using two models. The first perspective depicts a linear model with science exogenous to technology,in whichknowledge initiatedfromscience spills over into technology thereby creating positive externalities for innovation and commercialization (Freeman, 1992; Mansfield, 1995). The second perspective suggests that there is a more complex bidirectional relationship rather than a pure linear model, where progress in science may be due in partto feedback from technology (Murray, 2002; Nelson, 1995). In other words, science is not viewed as a selfcontained exogenous process but rather endogenous to technical progress and commercialization. However, as knowledge tends to be sticky (vonHippel,1994),there aremany challenges thatprevent it from being diffused easily across institutional boundaries. Practically, both institutions have used various means to enhance the transfer of knowledge and technology that they create as they co-evolve together. From the perspective of science-based firms, a number of mechanisms of how science influences technological progress and ultimately financial performance through knowledge spillovers have been identified. These include publishing in peer-reviewed journals (Henderson and Cockburn, 1994), coauthoring with academic scientists (Cockburn and Henderson, 1998; Liebeskind et al., 1996), movement of human capital through hiring of academic talent (Dasgupta and David, 1994), and geographically collocating close to academic organizations (Zucker et al., 1998). From the perspective of research universities, academic researchers engage in knowledge-related collaborations with firms (Perkmann et al., 2013) in the form of collaborations, contract research, or consulting, and as well as the founding of science-intensive firms (Murray, 2004; Stuart and Ding, 2006; Stuart et al., 2007). Universities actively foster commercialization (Rothaermel et al., 2007) through technology transfer offices that patent and license inventions from academic laboratories (Bercovitz and Feldman, 2006; Debackere andVeugelers, 2005), science parks to create clusters of expertise and incubators to nurture university spin-outs (Phan et al., 2005), and equity investment in start-ups (Feldman et al., 2002). Conceptually, academic engagement pursued for broader objectives, such as to assess resources and obtain learning opportunities (Lee, 2000), is seen as separate from and precedes university technology transfer (Perkmann et al., 2013), with the main goal of reaping financial reward from universities technologies.
Bridging the Communication Gap in Science and Technology - Springer www.springer.com/gp/book/9789811010248 This first-of-a-kind volume provides a snapshot of existing science communication policy and practice in India across different S&T sectors, and offers. Ymehcla Ag – Bridging Science and Technology ymehclaag.com/ All of your growing problems. could be solved in a. “Better than Organic” environment. YMEHCLA-AG introduces. their latest addition to it's line of solution based ... Bridging Science and Technology through Academic ... - SSRN papers https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2197876 by S Chai - 2014 - Cited by 13 - Related articles Jan 8, 2013 - Scientific research and its translation into commercialized technology is a driver of wealth creation and economic growth. Partnerships to foster ... NAE Website - Bridging Science, Technology, and Politics in Election ... https://www.nae.edu/.../Bridge/VotingTechnologies/BridgingScienceTechnologyandPolit... by RM Alvarez - Related articles Jun 1, 2007 - After the 2000 presidential election, Caltech and MIT initiated the Voter Technology Project to address problems with voting systems. Shortly ... [PDF]bridging science and technology with development - CiteSeerX citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.96.5435&rep=rep1...pdf by R Anstiss - Cited by 4 - Related articles Background and Framework. In the discussion here of bridging science and technology with development it is implicit that there already exists indigenous.