دانلود رایگان مقاله لاتین پارادوکس باز بودن بازبینی از سایت الزویر
عنوان فارسی مقاله:
پارادوکس باز بودن بازبینی: نوآوری های مشترک و ثبت اختراع توسط نوآوران بریتانیا
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:
The paradox of openness revisited: Collaborative innovation and patenting by UK innovators
سال انتشار : 2016
بخشی از مقاله انگلیسی:
2. Openness and appropriability
2.1. Theoretical views There are two dominant views on how patenting is related to use of external knowledge sources in innovation – we call these the “spillover prevention” theory and the “organizational openness” theory. In the “spillover prevention” theory (Cassiman and Veugelers, 2002) firms engaged in outside collaboration favour the use of patents as a means of reducing spillovers of valuable knowledge to external partners. In the simplest version of the spillover theory, firms want to prevent imitation of their (focal) innovation and patent in order to protect the rents from that innovation. The likelihood of spillovers is greater if the firm is open i.e., if it collaborates with a partner, because collaboration inevitably reveals more information to others than if the innovation were entirely in-house. It is widely recognized that using external knowledge could make it more difficult to protect the innovation. For instance, Noordhoff et al. (2011) argue that innovations sourced from customers carry the risk that the customer may implement the invention itself, in effect becoming a competitor. Giarratana and Mariani (2014) argue that using outside sources of knowledge makes it harder to enforce secrecy within the firm, increasing the risk of imitation. Consequently, if a firm is unwilling to patent, or if patents are ineffective, it may choose to be closed. The key takeaway is that a firm has a greater incentive to patentif itis open than if it is closed. Simply put, in this view, we expect to see a positive association between patenting and openness. Protecting the focal innovation is not the only source of positive associationbetweenpatenting andopenness.Many innovations are complex and require prior knowledge or background knowledge. Crucial bits of background information can leak out to partners during collaboration. Patents can protect against leakage of background material as well. Arora and Merges (2004) develop an analytical model in which the fear of knowledge spillovers may lead firms to internalize research even ifinternal research is less productive than external research, and the patents condition this trade-off. Using firm-level data from Germany, Buss and Peukert (2015) document a positive link between R&D outsourcing and intellectual property infringement, particularly for generic knowledge. More broadly, scholars have argued that strong IPRs are often beneficial and potentially even necessary for open innovation (Arora and Gambardella, 1994; Chesbrough, 2003). Thus, Graham and Mowery (2006) suggest that “. . . IP protection creates a platform for the transfer of knowledge assets. . .” (p.185). Note that Arora and Gambardella (1994) and Graham and Mowery (2006) have focused on the importance of IP protection to the agent transferring knowledge rather than sourcing it, whereas this paper is focused on firms sourcing external knowledge. A different source of positive association between patenting and openness is that open firms may patent to signal their innovative capabilities to other firms (Alexy et al., 2009; Hagedoorn and Ridder, 2012). For instance, Hagedoorn and Ridder (2012) surveyed 86 firms which are active in open innovation and found that nearly 90% of the firms regard patent as important method for signaling the nature of their technological capabilities.
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