دانلود رایگان مقاله لاتین مسیر جستجو در نوآوری باز از سایت الزویر
عنوان فارسی مقاله:
کجا و چگونه باید جستجو کرد؟ مسیرهای جستجو در نوآوری باز
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:
Where and how to search? Search paths in open innovation
سال انتشار :2016
بخشی از مقاله انگلیسی:
2. Literature review and framework
2.1. The search for solutions to problems Organizations search for alternative solutions to problems when current routines fail to produce results that match the organization’s aspirations (March and Simon, 1958). The screening of alternative solutions and task decomposition are major components of the problem-solving process (March and Simon, 1958, p. 178).2 For cognitive reasons, “problemistic search” (Cyert and March, 1963, p. 120–122) tends to be both simple-minded and biased, causing organizations to search locally, in the vicinity of already identified solutions. Levinthal and March (1981, p. 309) 1 Hereafter referred to as “problems.” 2 March and Simon (1958, pp. 178–179) also discuss randomness and the hierarchical structure of problem-solving in search. We acknowledge that innovation involves much more than just search for solutions since it requires knowledge integration, implementation, and diffusion, market acceptance, etc. but in this study we focus on the search problem. describe this as “refinement search”, which “emphasizes relatively immediate refinements in the existing technology, greater effi- ciency, and discoveries in the near neighborhood of the present activities.” However, when a problem cannot be solved using current routines, the firm is forced to innovate by developing new knowledge. “Innovative search” (Levinthal and March, 1981) includes distant search for new technologies, based on new combinations of knowledge (Carnabuci and Operti, 2013; Schumpeter, 1934). The subsequent literature on search and innovation investigates the properties and outcomes of refinement-oriented local search (exploitation) vs. innovation-oriented distant search (exploration) in more depth (Laursen, 2012; March, 1991). Also, these analyses focus on the location of alternatives relative to current behavior and “the elements that are to be searched” (Gavetti and Levinthal, 2000, p. 114). Below, we show that this search problem centers on the question of where to search. 2.1.1. Search space: where to search? Firms looking for solutions to problems search among combinations of knowledge in a search space (Knudsen and Srikanth, 2014). How does the firm know where to start? By envisaging the search space as the relative distance from the firm’s current knowledge base, search may be local, i.e., in the vicinity of the firm’s current knowledge, or distant, i.e., farther away from the firm’s current knowledge. In practice, knowledge categories and knowledge combinations need to be determined in advance. Knowledge categories can be represented by technological domains (e.g., internal combustion, electronics, bioenergy, etc.), industry classifications (e.g., automobiles, consumer retailing, telecommunications), or scientific fields (e.g., electromagnetic waves, particle physics, optimization). However, it is crucial that the focal firm understands where the appropriate knowledge is “stored” (e.g., in individuals, organizations, theories, patents, products, etc.) in order to effectively search for it. Organizations primarily search in the proximity of existing routines and previous solutions (Levinthal and March, 1993; Stuart and Podolny, 1996). Therefore, when conducting local search, organizations look for solutions that build on knowledge already in use. Although local search decreases the probability of finding novel solutions, it increases the chances of finding and acquiring workable solutions. In contrast, distant search entails knowledge recombination (Fleming and Sorenson, 2004; Rosenkopf and Nerkar, 2001), which may provide opportunities to identify disruptive innovations and achieve competitive advantage. Building on Schumpeter’s (1934) seminal argument, knowledge recombination and integration is a quintessential element of innovative capability (Carnabuci and Operti, 2013). Distant search essentially involves the search for solutions that are unrelated to the firm’s current knowledge base. However, organizations often filter out solutions based on distant knowledge, preferring to evaluate solutions from local knowledge sources (Piezunka and Dahlander, 2015).
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