دانلود رایگان مقاله لاتین مدار فرهنگی از سایت الزویر
عنوان فارسی مقاله:
واسطه های فرهنگی و مدار فرهنگ: پروژه سفیران دیجیتال در ژوهانسبورگ، آفریقای جنوبی
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:
Cultural intermediaries and the circuit of culture: The Digital Ambassadors project in Johannesburg, South Africa
سال انتشار : 2016
بخشی از مقاله انگلیسی:
. Cultural intermediaries and the circuit of culture
The idea that public relations, and other promotional industries such as branding, marketing and advertising, can be seen as cultural influencers originated from the work of Bourdieu in 1984 (Edwards, 2012, 2013) who saw the PR practitioner as a cultural intermediary who “presents and represents culture” (p. 243). The meaning making practices of cultural intermediaries occur through the use of various communication activities, as well as through other influencers such as celebrities, through popular culture, and through normative practices, all with the aim to promote their clients and their products. According to Edwards (2013, p. 243), public relations campaigns always include a measure of cultural change as they cannot always predict how audiences will create meaning from their messages and interactions. The ability of public relations practitioners to reflect on relevant experiences will influence their ability to make decisions regarding the use of suitable communication techniques for specific audiences (Edwards, 2012, p. 443). This implies that PRPs need to be well-versed in a variety of diverse contexts in order to make the best communication decisions on both micro- and macro-levels. Macnamara and Crawford (2013, p. 299) warn against a superficial form of cultural sensitivity and multiculturalism, and instead call for an understanding of public relations as the creation of cultural and social meaning, as was highlighted by Taylor and Kent (2006) in their study of nation building and PR. In another study, of the role of PRPs as cultural intermediaries in constructing Australia Day, Macnamara and Crawford (2013) identify a number of important factors, namely: an understanding of the historical context of an intervention, an understanding of the purpose and tacit meaning of activities, and knowledge of the decision-makers and role players who create the meaning that shapes public opinion. Cultural intermediaries should also be well-versed in the use of persuasive communication techniques as well as specific standards of practice. They should also have open association with stakeholders and be familiar with the important role of a public relations professional during planning. Furthermore, they should develop a centralised theme and focus to action, negotiate direct input from all stakeholders, acknowledge marginalised groups through reflection, be able to use various cultural influencers, promote open and diverse opinion and debate and, finally, adapt practices to suit changing contexts. These imperatives, developed by Macnamara and Crawford (2013), make a significant contribution to the theory of cultural intermediaries and can inform other culture-centred studies.
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