دانلود رایگان مقاله لاتین شرکت الکترونیک تایوانی از سایت الزویر
عنوان فارسی مقاله:
ارتباطات علمی و بهره وری شرکت: شواهد پانل داده ها از شرکت های الکترونیک تایوانی
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:
Scientific linkages and firm productivity: Panel data evidence from Taiwanese electronics firms
سال انتشار : 2016
بخشی از مقاله انگلیسی:
2. Inventive scientific activity among Taiwanese electronics firms
Through continuous investment in R&D, the number of patents granted to firms in Taiwan has grown. Since 1978, Taiwanese firms have had an increasing number of patents approved by the USPTO. There were 7 patents granted in 1978 and over 100 were granted in 1989. The growth rate has been rising substantially. In 2007, the number of U.S. patents granted to Taiwanese firms reached 7493, with the country being ranked 4th by the USPTO (National Science Council, 2008) in terms of the number of patents granted. Between 1978 and 2002, the most important areas of patented technologies granted to Taiwanese firms were as follows: semiconductor device manufacturing (24.9%), electrical connectors (8.12%), active solid-state physical devices (5.98%), electrical systems and devices (2.83%), static information storage and retrieval (2.24%), the processing, composition and production of radiation imagery chemistry (1.71%), computer graphics processing, interface processes and optical display systems (1.33%), multiple active non-linear electrical devices, and circuits and systems (1.13%).Most of these patents belong to the fields of electrical machinery and information technology. In terms of industry classification, most of Taiwan’s U.S.-approved patents in 1978–2002 concentrated in the electronics and electrical machinery (54.81%), machinery (15.72%), scientific instruments (6.55%), and metal spare parts (5.55%). The rate of patent applications was much higher for the electronics and electrical machinery industry than for machinery. This shows that 4 See Bloom et al. (2014) for a survey on the association between management practice and firm performance, and Lee et al. (2016) for empirical results based on firms in Japan and Korea. 5 In our study, we utilize the method of Good et al. (1996) to measure total factor productivity (TFP). The results are robust when we use other measures. the electronics and electrical machinery industry is the most R&Dactive one in Taiwan. The contribution of knowledge accumulated by firms in this industry and the relation of efforts spent engaging in innovation research to a firm’s productivity are issues of concern in Taiwan. There were 340 electronics firms listed on the TSE at the end of March 2009.6 As of the end of December 2008, 222 of these 340 firms had obtained U.S.-approved patents. Table 1 reports the pattern of U.S.-approved patent ownership in different electronic sub-industries. The Computer and Peripheral industry had the highest ratio (89.29%) of firms having obtained U.S.-approved patents at least once. The second is the Optoelectronics industry (75%), which is followed by the Semiconductors & Communications and Internet industries (73.68% and 70.59%, respectively). The lowest were firms in the Electronic Products Distribution and Information Services industries (25% and 30%, respectively). Firms holding U.S.-approved patents are divided into two groups, “firms with scientific linkages” and “firms without scientific linkages” based on the definition that non-patent references cited by a firm’s patent found in the ISI. Observation of the two groups shows that the proportion of the firms with scientific linkages is not very large (see Table 2). Of the 222 firms with U.S.-approved patents, only 52 have patents that cite at least one ISI publications (i.e., 25.68%). At the sub-industry level, the highest number of firms holding patents where scientific ISI publications are cited is in the Semiconductors industry (48.78%). Itis followed by the Information Services, and Communications & Internet industries (33.33% for both). Next are the Other Electronics (25.00%) and Optoelectronics (23.81%) industries. From this, we can see that the Semiconductor industry has the closest connection with scientific research in academia, followed by the Information Services, Electronic Product Distribution, Other Electronics, and Optoelectronics industries. Next, we use the average number of ISI journal articles cited per patent as an indicator to show the trend of scientific publications cited in U.S.-approved patents held by electronics firms for the period from 2004 to 2008. An examination of Table 3 shows that, in 2004, the Information Service industry has the highest average (1.5), the second highest is the Semiconductors industry (0.0606). They are followed by the Communications & Internet and Optoelectronics industries (0.0282 and 0.0212, respectively).7 In 2008, the Semiconductors industry has the highest average (0.4473). It is followed by the Communications & Internet and Optoelectronics industries. There was a conspicuous rise in the average number of citations of scientific publications by patents in the Semiconductors industry during 2004–2008. There was an increase in the ratio for Communications & Internet and Electronic Product Distribution industries during 2004–2007, but it dropped in 2008. The Optoelectronics, Electronics Parts/Components, Computers & Peripheral Equipment and Other Electronics industries showed no obvious changes. For the electronics industry as a whole, the average number of scientific publications cited in patents moved upward year by year.
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