دانلود رایگان مقاله لاتین سیاست بهینه جهت برنامه ریزی بازاریابی در بازار بی تو بی از سایت الزویر
عنوان فارسی مقاله:
سیاست های پویای بهینه برای برنامه ریزی تولید و بازاریابی یکپارچه در بازار های کسب و کار به کسب و کار
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:
Optimal dynamic policies for integrated production and marketing planning in business-to-business marketplaces
سال انتشار : 2014
بخشی از مقاله انگلیسی:
2. The problem
context This section characterizes the problem and contexts, including assumptions and the necessary notations. An RMI system with a PO contract is typical in vertically decentralized channel coordination, namely, the traditional trading form in which the retailer is responsible for replenishment schedule/quantity and retail price decisions. Recently, one essential channel coordination mechanism is the VMI system with consignment contracts, in which the manufacturer is responsible for replenishment scheduling/quantity and retail price decisions. Hence, this work develops mathematical models and solution procedures for decentralized channels under RMI with a PO contract and VMI with a consignment contract in TMs and EMs, respectively. This work considers a single perishable item, whose retail price and replenishment scheduling/quantity are reviewed periodically at time t, t¼0, 1, 2, …, H, where H is the planning horizon. Each period begins with a joint decision about scheduling a replenishment (if any) and its associated retail price. The problem is equivalent to determining the optimal sequence of issuance times for new replenishment zi1, i¼1, 2, …, n, with the retail price being reset and the lot-size specified simultaneously to maximize the profit stream over [0, H]. Notably, each new replenishment at zi1 is set for a selling period over [zi1, zi]. For sake of conciseness, we assume replenishment is instantaneous, with no in-transit inventory between upstream and downstream entities in a channel and no shortages exist. The demand function considered in this work should satisfy the following assumptions: (i) Dðp;tÞ is decreasing in p; (ii) limp-0Dðp;tÞo þ1 and limp-1Dðp;tÞ ¼ 0 for tZ0; and (iii) Dðp;tÞZ0 for p40, tZ0. The assumptions are assertions that demand is nonnegative, changes continuously with price and time, decreases as price increases, and is finite. There are many forms of demand functions that satisfy the assumptions (see Lau and Lau, 2003). The models and numerical analyses in this work assume the demand function has the form: Dðp;tÞ ¼ fðpÞgðtÞ, where fðpÞ ¼ abp, both a and b40, and gðtÞ ¼ eλt . Since eλt is nonnegative for all λ, the demand function Dðp;tÞ¼ðabpÞeλt satisfies the three assumptions above. Besides, the sales trend over product lifecycle is characterized by λ, positive (or negative) value of which represents upward (or downward) demand rate over time, and λ ¼ 0 represents the time-invariant demand. Choosing this particular form is for its simplicity and for streamlining further discussions on the optimality of the discount profit maximization problem. Furthermore, this particular demand function is commonly used in the literature (see, for example, Wee, 1995; Wee and Wang, 1999; Papachristos and Skouri, 2000). Other multivariate demand models have been proposed in pricing/inventory research such as Urban and Baker (1997) and Smith and Achabal (1998), which considered the demand rate as a function of price, time, and inventory level. Lau and Lau (2003) provided in-depth discussions on the effects of applying different demand curve functions on pricing/inventory decisions in single tiered as well as multi-tiered channels. In the profit maximization problem, revenue is generated from market sales and all relevant inventory expenses comprise holding, deterioration, replenishment, purchase, production, and transaction costs. All future revenue and costs are subject to the effects of inflation and time discounting. The net discount rate of inflation is assumed constant over time; that is, R ¼ φς, where ς is the inflation rate and φ is the discount rate representing the time value of money. The value of relevant revenue or cost, i.e., the discount cash flow, is XteRt for tZ0, where Xt is the value of X at time t. The following notations are used throughout this work. π ¼ P 3. The model under RMI with PO contracts In a vertically decentralized channel, channel coordination typically operates such that a make-to-order manufacturer produces products using a lot-for-lot policy with a unit cost c and sells them through a coordinating retailer under RMI with a PO contract with a wholesale price; that is, the manufacturer charges the retailer the wholesale price per unit purchased, and the retailer then sets the retail price and replenishment schedule/quantity. Product ownership is transferred from the manufacturer to the retailer once the retailer receives the products. Two alternatives exist for doing business in a supply chain. One alternative is the TM mode, in which both the retailer and manufacturer in the channel conduct business using the traditional trading form. The other alternative is the EM mode, in which companies in the channel conduct commerce transactions electronically over the Internet. This work first applies the TM and then the EM to the discount profit maximization problem in a decentralized channel under RMI with a PO contract.
Integrated maintenance and production control of a ... - Springer Link link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1023/A:1013596731865.pdf by SMR Iravani - 2002 - Cited by 117 - Related articles item. We formulate the integrated decisions of maintenance and production using a Markov Decision Process. The optimal dynamic policy is shown to have a rather complex structure which leads us to consider more implementable policies. We present a double-threshold policy and derive exact and approximate methods ... Optimal Dynamic Production and Inventory Transshipment Policies for ... https://pubsonline.informs.org/doi/abs/10.1287/opre.1070.0494 by H Zhao - 2008 - Cited by 60 - Related articles Apr 1, 2008 - In this setting, we prove that the optimal production policy for each location belongs to the “hedging point” family of policies, while the optimal demand filling policy belongs to the “state-dependent rationing” family of policies. We analyze the structural properties of the optimal policy and provide conditions ... [PDF]Optimal Dynamic Production and Sales Plans for ... - IIM Bangalore www.iimb.ac.in/research/sites/default/files/WP.IIMB_.267.pdf by R Patil - 2008 - Related articles the enhancement, they did not analytically investigate the influence of the hype and retarding effects on the optimal sales and production policies. Based on the insights obtained from the prior research on integrated production and sales planning for the new products, we believe that the optimal sales and production plans, ...