دانلود رایگان مقاله لاتین قابلیت بازاریابی آنلاین و رشد بازار بین المللی از سایت الزویر
عنوان فارسی مقاله:
توانایی بازاریابی اینترنتی و رشد بازار بین المللی
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:
Internet marketing capabilities and international market growth
سال انتشار : 2015
بخشی از مقاله انگلیسی:
2. The resource based view, capability perspective and international marketing
The resource based view has similarities to the capability perspective (Conner & Prahalad, 1996; Makadok, 2001), with resources representing a collection of tangible and intangible assets such as management skills, organisational processes, information and knowledge (Barney, Wright, & Ketchen, 2001). Capabilities are bundles of path dependent assets resulting from deliberate investment actions intended to create new forms of competitive advantage (Ray, Muhanna, & Barney, 2005; Teece, Pisano, & Shuen, 1997). The Internet, as a resource within the organisation, provides the basis for conversion into specific Internet marketing capabilities (Liao, Kickul, & Ma, 2009; Yalcinkaya, Calantone, & Griffith, 2007) integrated into international marketing activities and business processes (Glavas & Mathews, 2014; Trainor, Rapp, Beitelspacher, & Schillewaert, 2011). When a firm is able to combine and absorb Internet technologies and other resources into their practices and processes, they can leverage this capability to achieve a superior performance (Li & Ye, 1999; Powell & Dent-Micallef, 1997; Tippins & Sohi, 2003). Internet technology resources, in combination with marketing processes, skills and information, can be framed as capability development (Knudsen & Madsen, 2002; Ray, Barney, & Muhanna, 2004; Ray et al., 2005). The Internet is a specific resource, and firms are integrating the technology into such marketing activities as sales force systems, channel management and support, sales force (Gabrielsson & Gabrielsson, 2011), competitive intelligence, operational efficiency (e.g. online customer support) and international market development (Li & Ye, 1999; Prasad, Ramamurthy, & Naidu, 2001). The Internet, combined with market information, develops knowledge capabilities about foreign markets, which can reduce the liability of foreignness of unfamiliar cultural, political and economic environments (Kotha, Rindova, & Rothaermel, 2001; Zaheer, 1995). The Internet and market information resource and capability have the potential to enable a firm to overcome the lack of knowledge about foreign markets. This may then act as a trigger to initiate an organization’s international involvement, learning, and may alert managers to opportunities and subsequent foreign market expansion (Leonidou, 1998; Dichtl, Leibold, Koglmayr, & Muller, 1984; Morgan & Katsikeas, 1997). 3. Development of the hypotheses and conceptual model 3.1. International market growth The market development and market penetration of a firm’s products are considered to be important growth strategies for firms (Aaker, 2001; Ansoff, 1965; Ansoff & McDonnell, 1988), and international market growth has been frequently adopted as a dependent variable by international marketing researchers (Gronhaug & Kvitastein, 1992; Lim, Sharkey, & Kim, 1993). Andersen and Kheam (1998) used resource based theory to show that capabilities are good predictors of international market growth. Firms in the early stages of internationalisation place a stronger emphasis on international sales growth than other financial measures, such as profit, as it takes time to realise any investment or commitment to international growth (Autio, Sapienza, & Almeida, 2000). Our research focuses on international firms who transfer goods and services across borders directly or indirectly in the early rather than later stages of internationalisation. More specifically, the measure of international market growth is examined through different types of sales from international customers. We decided to use international sales growth rather than export intensity – proportion of sales – as a measure of international performance (Gemunden, 1991; Katsikeas, Leonidou, & Morgan, 2000), as it is more useful for developing managerial implications than export intensity which is more appropriate for macro-level export policy implications (Dhanaraj & Beamish, 2003). Dimensions of market growth have previously been applied in an international market context (Daniel, Wilson, & Myers, 2002; Griffith & Krampf, 1998; Gronhaug & Kvitastein, 1992), and more recently has been used in Internet international marketing research (see for example Mathews, Healy, & Wickramasekera, 2012; Morgan-Thomas & Bridgewater, 2004; Toften & Hammervoll, 2011). However, studies evaluating the Internet’s impact on international market growth remain limited (Mathews & Healy, 2008), which is surprising as the Internet can influence the international market growth of the firm through, for example, improved communication and access to market research (Aspelund & Moen, 2004). Further, most studies suggest that the Internet has a positive impact on international market growth but fail to empirically test this relationship (see for example Clarke, 2008; Gibbs & Kraemer, 2004). 3.2. Information availability and international strategic orientation International markets are diverse, complex and uncertain (Welch & Luostarinen, 1988), and the Internet helps a firm identify new customers and distributors, generate information about market trends, and track research and technological developments. For example, the Internet gives access to databases from government agencies, universities and research centres (Cronin & McKim, 1996), increasing information availability (Berry & Brock, 2004; Brock & Yu, 2005; Hamill & Gregory, 1997) and reducing the perceived risk associated with international market growth strategies (Mathews & Healy, 2007). Finally, the Internet dilutes the asymmetry of information experienced by firms (Samiee, 1998) supporting more informed decisions (Teo & Choo, 2001).
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