دانلود رایگان مقاله لاتین انتخاب نرخ تنزیل اجتماعی از سایت الزویر
عنوان فارسی مقاله:
"ارزیابی عملکرد پروژه های بخش عمومی در روسیه: انتخاب نرخ تنزیل اجتماعی"
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:
“Evaluating performance of public sector projects in Russia: The choice of a social discount rate”
سال انتشار : 2015
بخشی از مقاله انگلیسی:
2. The place of a social discount rate in public sector project management in Russia and other post-Soviet countries
Initiators of new projects and programs face the problem of selecting a social discount rate when investments are financed by the state or when other forms of government support are expected. In Russia, the government is the main investor in such sectors as education, healthcare, water supply, infrastructure, transport, and the electric power industry. This is explained by the high importance of infrastructure facilities for the economy. In addition, private investors are often not willing to take the risk of long-term investment in large-scale projects when the expected return on these investments might not be sufficient. Investment in the public sector cannot be considered in isolation from the general economic situation in a country. Among the most important indicators characterizing the economy are gross domestic product and changes in gross investments (Fig. 1). The dynamics of these indicators in Russia for the period from 2000 to 2014 are given below. The source of the data is the Federal State Statistics Service of Russia (2015). The figures are in 2000 prices. From 2000 to 2014, there was a general trend of growth of the indicators under consideration. However, the recent financial crisis of 2008 led to a noticeable decrease in both gross domestic product and gross investments in 2009. The latest data also demonstrate a worsening of the general economic situation in the country. This fact makes solving social problems in Russia more difficult. An analysis of the federal budget for recent years shows that government expenditures in Russia has increased with a growth in the number of commitments being made by the government. At the same time, the amount of resources directed toward social policy on a national level has gradually reduced. The reduction of government expenditures on social policy indicates that the government must now fulfill its obligations to society by using fewer funds. This suggests a need for establishing priorities for social policy and, consequently, the need for a clear methodology for assessing the effectiveness of various initiatives. This could be a great challenge for public sector management. It is also important to determine the character of the financing of government programs aimed to solve social problems and improve the quality of life in the country. The data is provided on the website of the Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation (2015) from 2009 to 2014. All figures are in 2009 prices, calculated with a GDP deflator. Fig. 2 illustrates recent changes in total expenditures on federal programs approved by the government at the national level. The downward trend emphasizes the importance of effective allocation of limited budgetary resources. Fewer resources for the implementation of federal programs lead to a need for more rigorous project selection. The consequences of inefficient investment decisions are worse when budget constraints are stricter. This causes a necessity for more effective methods of evaluating the performance of public investments. In order to increase the effectiveness of decision-making, governments can apply the best practices of project management and adopt methods from the private sector. One of the most promising forms of cooperation is public–private partnership—when a private firm solves problems of the public sector, such as building and maintaining infrastructure facilities and providing public services. In Russia, great attention is paid to this kind of investment. Attracting non-budgetary investments helps the government finance infrastructure projects and save budget resources in the short-term. This makes budget constraints less strict. Competent government authorities are able to select projects for budget funding and further implementation as well as for provision of other forms of government support, including public–private partnership. Nevertheless, it remains essentially important to develop procedures to ensure the objectivity and effectiveness of decision-making. At the sub-national level, regional authorities in Russia implement various investment projects, which vary, based on the needs of a particular region and the amount of available funds. At present, the process of performance evaluation is very subjective. It can vary from one region to another. Subjectivity arises from the fact that there is no unified methodology of performance evaluation. Moreover, the methods and techniques being applied are not open to the public. Only data on expenditures on project implementation and output indicators for these projects are openly available. It is not clear how government agencies estimate the social effects and externalities of initiatives or how they compare budget costs with the anticipated social benefits. Thus, the principle of transparency is being violated
PDF]Guidelines for the Evaluation of Public Sector - Asian Development Bank https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/.../guidelines-evaluation-public-sector.pdf Guidelines for Preparing Performance Evaluation Reports for Public Sector ... ADB requires that all public sector projects that have incurred ADB expenditures. [PDF]Guidelines for Preparing Performance Evaluation Reports for Public ... https://www.oecd.org/derec/adb/37965974.pdf They replace ADB's Guidelines for Preparation of Project Performance Audit ... 2 Good practice standards for evaluating public sector operations agreed to by ... [PDF]principles of performance evaluation for public sector enterprises www.queensjdiexec.org/publications/qed_dp_34.pdf to the evaluation of public sector enterprise performance ... Often in the evaluation of the performance of ..... An economic appraisal of a project can be develop. Evaluation of Public Sector Contributions to Public-Private Partnership ... https://www.its.leeds.ac.uk/projects/WBToolkit/Note15.htm Part of Toolkit for the Economic Evaluation of World Bank Transport Projects ... For PPP projects, as for conventional public sector projects, it is usual to ..... so that tenders can be assessed against a benchmark level of financial performance. [PDF]Evaluation for Public Sector Performance - The Colombo Plan ... www.colombo-plan.org/?wpfb_dl=102 Apr 22, 2009 - Evaluation for Public Sector Performance: The Malaysian ... implementation of development programme and projects. This paper presents the.