دانلود رایگان مقاله لاتین اقتصاد اشتراک گذاری از سایت الزویر
عنوان فارسی مقاله:
درک روابط عمومی در "اقتصاد اشتراک گذاری"
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:
Understanding public relations in the ‘sharing economy
سال انتشار : 2016
بخشی از مقاله انگلیسی:
3. The ‘sharing economy’ in communication discourse
More attention from the communication academy is overdue, not primarily because ofthe scope ofthe ‘sharing economy’, but because ofthe disruption that other scholarly disciplines forecastfor the entire eco-systemthat comprises value-creation, symbolic interaction and the communicative formation of communities. Even after discounting the often unreflexively enthusiastic hyperbole found in public media,the ‘sharing economy’s’ impactis seldom described as incremental, butinstead as a seismic shift toward “alternative ways of consuming and new business paradigms” (Belk, 2014: 1599; Miller, 2016), or as an ‘economic groundswell’ as important as the industrial revolution (Botsman & Rogers, 2010a); its mixture of posttraditional social innovations and more traditional extractive modes of business has engendered visions of renewed forms of collective urban life (Morgan & Kuch, 2015; Seyfang & Smith, 2007) and even of transformed market economies that will globally pivot toward sustainability (Cohen & Kietzmann, 2014; Martin, 2016). A nascent coordinated market economy is said to point to the existence of a variety of alternative capitalist forms (Dyal-Chand, 2015), in which boundaries (and their definitions) are challenged between public and private institutions, economic and social spheres, production and consumption, as well as between organizations, their constituents and their stakeholders. We propose that this impact on the definition and on the spanning of boundaries between organizations, communities and businesses also puts conceptual pressure on public relations, itself hitherto understood as a boundary-defining and −spanning function. Using the most prevalent taxonomy of how industries evolve (McGahan, 2000), the public relations industry can be said to undergo intermediating change as a result of this conceptual pressure: Its core assets (skills, knowledge and abilities) retain their value, but some of its core activities are threatened with obsolesence. “The challenge under intermediating change is to find ways to preserve knowledge [. . .] and other valuable assets while fundamentally changing relationships with customers and suppliers” (McGahan, 2004: 2). Public relations is exposed to the pressure ofthe ‘sharing economy’ by needing to simultaneously be both inclusive as well as competitive. ‘Sharing economy’ ventures, in spite oftheir communal nature and open organization, are also as aggressively competitive as the closed corporate entities of the ‘traditional’ economy, likewise trying to distinguish themselves in their markets with – among other things – forms of traditional public relations campaigns for which they promptly become criticized (Heylighen, 2016; Swant, 2015). Their communication efforts are torn in two directions when designed to sustain ventures that are both ‘genuinely collaborative’ as well as ‘hotly competitive’ (Schor et al., 2015: 13). A second conceptual pressure is that while non-centralized communication enables the trust, the relationships, the communities and the transactions inside ‘sharing economy’ ventures, their very lack of a centralized, hierarchical entity also exposes them to explicit distrust from those on the outside of their communities. ‘Sharing economy’-ventures are often blamed for transferring risks to consumers, the casualization of labour, the lack of concern for the environment and the avoidance of taxes. In response, they engage in traditional forms of lobbying, for which again they receive higher scrutiny than traditional firms (e.g. Ford, 2016; Slee, 2016; Sundarajan, 2016). A reconceptualized public relations will therefore also need to reflect this second pressure – one between openness and distinction (Schor et al., 2016: 66) – that it has in common with the ‘sharing economy’ as a whole, caught in the contradiction between a ‘pathway to sustainability’ and a ‘nightmarish form of neoliberalism’ (Martin, 2016: 212).
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