دانلود رایگان مقاله لاتین اضطراب کار و سندرم متابولیکی در پرتوشناس
عنوان فارسی مقاله:
استرس کار و سندرم متابولیکی در رادیولوژیست: اولین شواهد
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:
Work stress and metabolic syndrome in radiologists: first evidence
سال انتشار : 2014
بخشی از مقاله انگلیسی:
Materials and methods
Since Italian radiologists and radiotherapists are increasingly being accused of alleged malpractice [10–18], we decided to use a questionnaire to investigate the possible health effects resulting from such accusations . The same questionnaire was administered to subjects taking part in a scientific conference. A total of 654 completed responses were returned. The questionnaire examined the perception of occupational stress through the simultaneous use of the two commonest stress models: the Karasek demand–control– support (DCS) model  and the effort–reward imbalance (ERI) model devised by Siegrist . According to the DCS model, a work environment where there is a high level of psychological demand (frenetic pace, contradictory, and excessive demands) and a low level of job control, exposes the worker to job stress. In Karasek’s original model, the combination of exposure levels for demand and control gives rise to four distinct conditions. High strain jobs characterized by elevated demand and low control, lead to a greater risk of negative mental and physical health effects as compared to the other three groups. In ‘‘active’’ jobs, characterized by high demand and high decisional power, enhanced autonomy enables workers to avoid becoming the victims of stress. Similarly, in the other two categories, workers with low strain and high discretionary power, or passive workers (with low demand and low control) are not exposed to occupational strain. The four groups are established by dividing the scores of the demand and control scales at the median. It is also possible to use continuous scales and create a continuous variable (job strain), as a weighted ratio of the two previous scales. This model involves a third variable—social support at work—whose function is to moderate stress and was added following studies conducted by Swedish researchers . The DCS model was the first to demonstrate the association between stress and pathologies; much of the literature is based on this model [23– 27]. According to the ERI model, stress originates from an imbalance between the effort required to perform work and the material or immaterial rewards obtained thereby. In this model, imbalance is calculated once more as a weighted ratio between effort and reward and is a continuous variable that can be divided at the median to obtain categories of workers who are more or less exposed to stress. This model also assumes that workers with a motivational pattern of excessive work-related commitment are at greater risk . Although the Karasek model provides a perfect picture of the repetitive tasks of the first industrial revolution when work was conditioned by machinery, the Siegrist model seems better suited to interpret the occupational conditions of the second industrial revolution where work has taken on a more immaterial aspect and is more invasive. In fact, in recent years, there has been a considerable increase in the number of studies based on this model. Their findings have shown that the combination of high effort and low reward constitutes a risk factor in numerous illnesses [29–33]. However, the two models offer a complementary rather than alternative solution, so a combination of the two questionnaires can provide better information on the relationship between work and health [34, 35]. Both questionnaires are available in different versions. Despite their different composition, these provide homogeneous results [36–38]. In this study, we used the 17-item DCS questionnaire and the 23-item version of the ERI questionnaire. Validation of the Italian version of these questionnaires ensured that they maintained the same structure as the original versions and were consistent throughout . In the DCS questionnaire, the ‘demand’ scale was made up of five questions (e.g., D1: ‘‘Do you have to work very fast in your job?’’) (reliability, Cronbach’s alpha = 0.60); the ‘control’ scale was the sum of six items (e.g., C2: ‘‘Does your job require a high level of skill and competence?’’) (alpha = 0.56) and the ‘support’ scale was the sum of six items (e.g., S1: ‘‘There is a calm and pleasant atmosphere where I work’’) (alpha = 0.87). Items were scored using a 4-point Likert’s scale in which the first two scales were graded from 1 = never, hardly ever to 4 = often, while the third scale (support) was graded from 1 = strong disagreement to 4 = strong agreement. The ERI questionnaire consisted of two scales: ‘effort’ (alpha = 0.87) which was based on 6 questions (e.g., E1. ‘‘I have constant time pressure due to a heavy workload’’) (a = 0.87) and ‘reward’ (a = 0.87), evaluated by 11 items (e.g., R2 ‘‘I receive the respect I deserve from my colleagues’’). The questionnaire included a third, ‘overcommitment’, scale (alpha = 0.91) made up of six questions (e.g., ‘‘People who know me well say that I am too committed to my work’’). The responses were scored on a 5-point scale where a value of 1 corresponded to: ‘‘Strongly disagree, does not apply’’; a value of 2 to: ‘‘Agree but I am not distressed’’ and a value of 5 to: ‘‘Strongly agree, I am greatly distressed’’.
Work stress and metabolic syndrome in radiologists ... - Springer Link https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11547-013-0329-0 by N Magnavita - 2014 - Cited by 19 - Related articles Scientific data have amply demonstrated that work stress increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, less attention has been given to the association between stress and metabolic syndrome. In this study, our aim was to investigate the relationship between work stress and metabolic syndrome in a population of ... Occupational stress and metabolic syndrome in health care workers ... https://academic.oup.com/eurpub/article/27/suppl_3/ckx187.088/4556059 by N Magnavita - 2017 - Cited by 1 Oct 20, 2017 - Background. Health care workers (HCWs) may be exposed to high levels of job-related stress in the course of their activities, mainly as a result of compassionate fatigue, lack of skills, organisational factors, and low social support at work. Some recent meta analyses and an umbrella review indicate a ... Chronic stress at work and the metabolic syndrome ... - UCL Discovery discovery.ucl.ac.uk › Library Services › Electronic resources › UCL Discovery by T Chandola - 2006 - Cited by 931 - Related articles Chronic stress at work and the metabolic syndrome: prospective study. Chandola, T; Brunner, E; Marmot, MG; (2006) Chronic stress at work and the metabolic syndrome: prospective study. BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.) , 332 (7540) , Article 521. 10.1136/bmj.38693.435301.80. Green open access ...