دانلود رایگان مقاله لاتین ارتقای کارآفرینی محیط پویا از سایت الزویر
عنوان فارسی مقاله:
ارتقای جهت گیری کارآفرینی در محیط های پویا: درگیری میان تیم مدیریت برتر و ظرفیت جذب
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:
Enhancing Entrepreneurial Orientation in Dynamic Environments: The Interplay between Top Management Team Advice-Seeking and Absorptive Capacity
سال انتشار : 2016
بخشی از مقاله انگلیسی:
Data and methods
Research setting and data collection For the purpose of this research, we randomly identified a sample of 9000 firms within the Netherlands from the REACH database. The survey was conducted in two instances. The independent and moderating variables have been measured in the 2008 survey. Our dependent variable was measured in the 2009 survey. The survey of 2008 resulted in an overall response rate of 10.8 percent. The survey in 2009 amongst the 970 firms that had responded to our survey in 2008 resulted in a response rate of 23.3 percent or 226 firms in total. Firms in the sample had a mean age of 36.2 years (S.D. 31.4 years) and a mean size of 226 employees (S.D. 1157). With respect to the different industries, we obtained responses from agricultural and natural resource firms (6%), semi-product manufacturing firms (18%), utilities and construction firms (19%), trading firms (5%), transport firms (9%), financial services (2%) professional service firms (25%), IT (5%), media (3%), semipublic sector (3%) and manufacturing firms (7%). Firms in the 2009 sample had a similar mean age, mean size and average TMT size as the sample in 2008; moreover, the industries within our 2009 sample were similarly dispersed as in the 2008 sample. To test for non-response bias, we investigated potential differences between the respondents and non-respondents with respect to size in terms of number of employees, age of the firm and size of the TMT for both survey waves. No significant differences could be found at the (p < 0.05) level, which indicates that non-response is not a problem with respect to the abovementioned aspects. To tackle additional reliability issues related to single informant bias, we collected data from a second TMT member for each firm. Response rate was lower than our primary survey but we managed to obtain a response rate of 18.4 percent from the lagged sample of 226 firms. Our interrater agreement scores ranged from .79 to .98, suggesting high overall agreement, and thus we conclude that single informant bias is not a problem within our sample (James et al., 1993). We also assessed the intra-class correlations which were significant at the .001 level, suggesting a strong level of interrater reliability (Jones et al., 1983). In terms of common method bias, we have taken care to temporally separate measurement. We further performed the Harman’s one factor test on the items included in the regressions. We found multiple factors to be present and the variance was evenly dispersed among the factors. Finally, we checked whether a single latent method factor connected with all the item scales could improve the fit over a model with constructs represented as latent factors (Podsakoff et al., 2003). The chi-square fit statistics for this model with a common method factor included was not significant and we conclude that common method bias did not augment the hypothesized relationships (Podsakoff and Organ, 1986).
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